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Thursday, 1 February 2018

 Kwara State University, Malete

The interdisciplinary Institute of Advanced Military Studies (IAMS) at the Kwara State University (KWASU) Malete, was established in January 2018. It is domiciled on the fourth floor of the college of Engineering and Technology Building at KWASU main campus, Malete, Kwara State.
The Institute is mandated to award Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degree in Advanced Military Studies. The doctoral program is to groom students through immersion in the advanced history and multi disciplinary theories of war as a fundamental human challenge. The program would also interrogate the immense potential transformational consequences of war related inventions and technological innovations for society and state as well as their implications for systemic stability.
Vice-Chancellor of KWASU, Prof. AbdulRasheed Na'Allah
Premised on the recognition of war as a problematic existential reality that many experts essentially consider as central to the evolution of world history and development; social, political, economic, the objectives of the IAMS are, through cutting edge research, to bridge discernible gaps in the appreciation of the interactive connectedness of the military as an institution and developments, including the trajectory of the whole spectrum of pivotal human engagements, of the larger society at both the global and local levels. The focus of IAMS is on the expressions of the paradoxical nexus between the military and state and society in the post colonial environment.

Noting also that advances in technology, globalization and the increasing turbulence of global politics are driving the continuous evolution of the nature and character of war, categories of protagonist forces have emerged: conventional military forces of state actors with increasing accent on specialized forces, non conventional forces of non state actors , terrorists that are permanently engaged in combat with state forces as well as with other non state forces. At the cusp of the fourth industrial revolution (digital age) these all have major consequences for post colonial entities with a history of total appropriation of the political space by the military establishment.

The IAMS mandate includes robust interrogation of conventional theories, understandings, and practices in relation to military affairs in the context of far reaching strategic global transformations. The IAMS interventions are through comprehensive data codification and rigorous analysis of real life experiences across the African continent, to illuminate the implications of expanding knowledge on the military for the state and society.

In this connection, the IAMS provides a unique national and continental platform to generate new and profound perspectives even while cross pollinating critical insights through seminars, research, developing narratives, analytical and conceptual, into the factors, perceptual and real, within and without the military establishment, informing the overall locus and operations of the military in the developmental process. This entails in-depth analyses of the factors driving the interaction of the military institution and allied establishments on the one hand with all facets of state and society relations, including in governance, on the other hand.

The Institute thus aims to strengthen  the epistemological pillars as well as expand the scope and breadth of a rigorous engagement of the Military institution as a subject of intense academic interest in the evolution of the post colonial state and its society, especially in the context of neo/post coloniality/post liberation/post settlement in Africa. 

The outputs of the institute's research initiatives are designed to impact the formulation of policy, by both civilian and professional policy framers, in relation to overall national development, in respect of the military  itself and its role in state and society at large.

The IAMS is headed by Dr. Ademola Araoye, retired diplomat and former Head of Political, Policy and Planning and, later, Chief of Office for the Consolidation of Democratic Governance of the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL). 
Dr. Ademola Araoye
Director, Institute of Advanced Military Studies.
He can be reached through e-mail:
The Institute can be reached through email: 
( )


KWASU Malete,
Kwara State.
January 24, 2018

Statement on the Institute of Advanced Military Studies (IAMS)

Ademola Araoye (Ph.D.)

Director: Institute of Advanced Military Studies (IAMS)
Kwara State University (KWASU)

Thank you, Sir, the Vice Chancellor, for the generous words. I am honoured to be here.
Deputy Vice Chancellor, Prof Saka Mahmoud, who has been in the trenches, and
Distinguished Professors and Colleagues.

I want to start by acknowledging the profoundness of your vision that led me to Malete. It is your incredible farsightedness and imagination to establish an Institute of Advanced Military Studies (IAMS) at this great institution. The vision attests to the quality of an engaging leadership of the Vice chancellor characterized by a wide futuristic latitudinal and longitudinal berth. But that is not all. That the idea of an institute dedicated to the challenge of navigating the implicit and explicit intersections of military and civilian life is today being physically manifested is instructive of the fidelity and imaginative collegiality by all of you. The crucial outcome of this great convergence of mind,  thought and action is my presence at this campus at this time as your colleague and collaborator in the commitment of our KWASU community to a constructive partnership in the concretization of the IAMS. I therefore congratulate you, or better still, felicitate with everyone here whose contribution has helped to forge and would shape this unique and millennial Institute.
IAMS is a historic national and continental challenge. Given the contortions of Africa's social and political evolution, suffused with wars and military occupation of the totality of the political spaces,  IAMS is actually late in coming. IAMS should have been born immediately after independence or in the least immediately after the end of the Nigerian civil war. Or, more saliently, for the continent in 1952 when Colonel Gamal  Abdel Nasser staged the first decisive intrusion of the military into the African geo-political space, by overthrowing the Egyptian monarchy. The Nasserian model of intervention in the political space became a norm that transformed Africa's putative political spaces and altered the strategic landscape of the continent. By the time coup d'etat was de-legitimized at the end of the Cold War, Africa had experienced just about 152 of them. That is roughly 1 coup for one each of the 156 often unviable African post colonial state. We also have post revolutionary and post settlement political entities, such as South Africa, Namibia, Angola or Mozambique with foundations in revolutionary wars through forces such as the military wings of the Pan African Forces for the Liberation of Guinea and Cape Verdes (PAIGC) or the Umkhonto We Sizwe of the African National Congress. Indeed, navigating the intersections and interfacing the complex interconnectedness of the military, politics and society takes us into world history. 

List of ongoing conflicts in Africa:

Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Somalia, Uganda, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Western Sahara, Democratic Republic of Congo and Chad


What emerges from world history and the experience of post-colonial Africa is that war is a problematic existential reality that cannot be taken for granted the way African intellectuals and institutions have abdicated their responsibility to society. The issue of war and the military cannot be left to the military alone. After all, under normal circumstances, the political class is responsible for providing the grand strategic objectives for which the military is an important implementing agency. Also the technology that war and preparations for war has inspired over the centuries, have a paradoxical nexus to human progress and well being. On the one hand, war has become more and more cataclysmic violence with ever escalating catastrophic consequences for humanity. This has been the outcome of exponential increase in destructive power in the face of unrelenting scientific advances, in particular in applied military technology. For example, one H-bomb tested on 1 March, 1954 had a yield of 15 megatons, that is 750 times the size of Little Boy, the A-bomb that devastated Hiroshima on August 6, 1945.[i] As the outcome of the Manhattan project or in the official codename, Development of Substitute Materials, demonstrated, war efforts across nations have often instigated scientific breakthroughs with unimaginable devastating implications for the "human animal". With advances in war technology, and a dangerous political conjunction, Mankind faces absolute and complete destruction that may lead to his annihilation, and a possible rise of an insect age in an atmosphere-less planet.[ii] The stand-off between Donald Trump's United States of America and North Korea's Kim Il Jung or the United States and Iran over the development of nuclear capabilities reflects the perceived dangers posed to global or regional balance of power by intense scientific explorations of great military value by various hegemonic world powers and aspiring elite powers.

The fundamental logic is that the leverage for global influence is enhanced by a nation's demonstration of nationally based indigenous scientific expertise and capability, especially in the realm of applied military technology, including in the exploration of space. In instances the pivotal individuals and brains driving national scientific endeavours considered threatening to the strategic interests of its real time enemy states are neutralized. Technology is central to war. In the Second World War, for instance, Britain was unambiguous that it was fighting an industrial war, bolstered by advances in science and technology and by galvanizing the country to produce more food, more planes, more tanks. The industrial production of more of everything was at the heart of Britain's war effort. On the Axis side, the Third Reich also projected that her prowess lay in its mechanized might and that was at the forefront of its propaganda and the war itself.[iii] On the other hand, technology consciously inspired by war purposes have impacted constructively in advancing the wellbeing of society. The unravelling of the secrets of splitting a uranium atom by German physicists in 1939 and the desperate follow up in a three nation wartime collaborative Manhattan project ended World War II with unimaginable devastation. Yet, nuclear technology also however ultimately opened the flood gate to the many peaceful uses of atomic energy. This paradoxical connectedness has long generated an intense discourse regarding the relationship between war and human progress.[iv] That is one reason that we are particularly grateful to the Provost of the College of Engineering and Technology, Prof Alabi, for agreeing to host us in his territory. I promise that we would be responsible tenants in his domain.

Notwithstanding the stalemated outcome of the intellectual jousting on the role of War in the advancement of the cause of humanity, preparation for war since antiquity, then in modern civilization through the first industrial revolution ushered in by the increased use of steam power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the factory system, through to the nuclear age that has been transformed in the evolving fourth industrial revolution, defined by the deployment of an array of digitally based inventions, has remained a critical catalytic agent in human affairs, civilization and development. In the digital age, noting that the world is on the cusp of the fourth industrial revolution that he described as a seismic shift that is beyond anything humankind has experienced, German economist, Klaus Schwab, observes that the first, second and third industrial revolutions gave us steam power, electricity and electronics respectively. Though these are no doubt great technological achievements, Schwab advances that the assortment of emerging technologies associated with the fourth industrial revolution – artificial intelligence (AI), the Internet-of-Things (IoT), 3D printing, bio printing, gene editing, autonomous vehicles (AVs) and so on, the world as we know it today will be transformed in unprecedented ways[v]. This would undoubtedly have unimaginable implications for the tactical and operational levels of war planning and execution.

Given the already changing anatomy of war, including the emergence of asymmetric warfare, underpinned by clashing ideo-philosophical and religious/civilizational confrontations driving new forms of hostilities between states at one level, and between states and organized bands of forces of non state entities at another level, the fourth industrial revolution has demonstrated its potential to further, in horrific ways, diversify warfare, in particular in altering the tactical and operational imperatives of warfare.

Wars are fought along three levels: the strategic, at which the broad high level objectives, often political, are enunciated; the tactical entailing the battles and brutal engagements of men-what John Holland describes as a "coal face of war"-; and "the operational: the means by which other levels connect, or in other words, the logistics-a nation's ability to produce war materiel, tanks or aircrafts and deliver them to the front line"[vi] This diversification, the outcome of transformations in tactical and operational levels of war fare, is through an enhanced multi-dimensional character, changed nature and increased intensity of a comprehensive warfare executed in a fluid battlefield defined and controlled in situ campaign operational headquarters that target, and may choose to discountenance harm to unarmed civilians caught up with identified villains, at the other extreme end of the world. The battle field is surreal as a reality that is virtually defined on lab-tops in operational digital bunkers and headquarters 10,000 kilometers away from targets in the cross-hairs.

The new real live war in the digital age is actually a virtual game that accepts significant euphemistically expressed collateral damage of unarmed human civilian and communities as legitimate victims of war. This ascent of hostilities through digital related platforms and media implicitly reflects the evisceration of moral restraints imposed on the conduct of armed hostilities by contemporaneous advances in technology. Meanwhile, the development of modern industrial civilization has also been historically associated with the emergence of the Frankenstein of total war.[vii] The fourth industrial revolution, coinciding with the resurgence of nationalistic fervor and explicitly expressive Islamophobia across the United States and, critically, lodged in the United States in the national establishment and also in Western Europe is reminiscent of Western Europe in the late 1930s and 40s. Within this volatile historic conjuncture portends the danger of the validation of the unlimited and unregulated digital hostile campaigns against weak "shithole" societies and the many perceptually defined discounted external Other by emerged powerful nationalist Orders. Across and arrayed against the consolidated aisle of unbridled nationalism, fundamentalist Christendom, white WASPian bigotry, and racialism in the USA and Europe is convulsive global political Islam founded on Islamic fundamentalism. Both portend disguised racial hatred against black humanity. In the 1930s and 1940s Europe, anti Semitism was fair game. In the second decade of the Third Millennium, anti-black racialism is fair game. What then do these crucial transformations and developments in the digital age portend for weak states increasingly inching to the periphery of global relevance? This references in particular the post colonial states of Africa.

IAMS is envisioned to be heavily course work based, interspersed with seminars and special thematic studies. It is planned as a rigorous enterprise with a determined accent on protecting the integrity of our intellectual pursuit. We plan to be the vanguard and foremost platform for robust intellectual interrogations of the subject of the military and its nexus with the larger society. It is our determination to be the very best in our field in Africa. We would cultivate strong linkages with elite institutions with similar mandates all over the world. IAMS graduates would be prized conceptually endowed leaders in this very critical realm of insightful navigation of the constructive intersection between the military and state and society. They would transform the policy making process and bring invaluable value added to the substance of policy. We hope to be the very best in the service of Nigeria and indeed of black Africa.

Director IAMS consulting with Air Commodore M.A Soladoye (rtd)
Former Commandant, Air Force Institute of Technology, kaduna

In brief, I want to sum up that the multi-dimensional challenges of IAMS are based on real life and real time exigencies of Nigeria and Africa. The major thrust of our academic interests or the direction that IAMS would take would span from Politics to Political economy, entailing the Military Industrial Complex, Intelligence in War, factors impacting training and doctrine, the design and formulation of holistic Grand National Strategy, including the mechanisms for unravelling the strategies of hostile forces on the African continent. We would also focus on mediation and peace-building. In pursuit of these goals, we would leverage the rich experience of our local community and our neighbours in the 22nd Mechanized brigade and the medium Airlift Group, indeed of the national military establishment, to infuse real life and practical impulses as we assert continental leadership in the critical endeavour.

That is the direction that I propose that we take this very crucial intellectual fort at the Kwara State University. Finally, we would not be caught up as an isolated irrelevant Ivory tower peroration. The modalities of our engagement would be designed to impact policy formulation process: a potential game changer in the affairs of Nigeria and Africa.

I am grateful for your attention.

Director, IAMS
KWASU Malete,
16 February, 2018

[i] Niall Ferguson, The War of the World, Epilogue, (Penguin Group, United States of America, 2006) p.597.

[ii] Niall Ferguson, The War of the World, Epilogue, (Penguin Group, United States of America, 2006) p.567.

[iii] James Holland, The War in the West, Volume II (Bantam Press, London, Johannesburg, 2017) p. 3.

[iv] See John. U. Nef, War and Human Progress: An Essay on the Rise of Industrial Civilization, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press: 1950)

[v] Tan Teck Boom, Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Fourth Industrial Revolution, International Policy Digest, 30/10/2016 Source: Tan Teck Boon
Weapons of Mass Disruption: The Fourth Industrial Revolution is Here

Tan Teck Boon
Weapons of Mass Disruption: The Fourth Industrial Revolution is Here

Tan Teck Boon
Weapons of Mass Disruption: The Fourth Industrial Revolution is Here

[vi] James Holland, The War in the West, Volume II (Bantam Press, London, Johannesburg, 2017) Introduction, p. 2.

[vii] Donald C. McKay, Reviewed Work: John U. Nef, War and Human Progress: An Essay on the Rise of Industrial Civilization. Source:

Great Warriors of African Descent


Queen Amina of Zazzau


She was a Hausa Warrior Queen of Zazzau (now Zaria), in what is now north west Nigeria.She is the subject of many legends, but is believed by historians to have been a real ruler. There is controversy among scholars as to the date of her reign, one school placing her in the mid-15th century, and a second placing her reign in the mid to late 16th century.

Shaka Zulu
Also known as Shaka Zulu, was one of the most influential monarchs of the Zulu Kingdom in southern Africa.
He was born in the month of uNtulikazi (July) in the year of 1787 near present-day Melmoth, KwaZulu-Natal Province.

Yaa Asantewaa of Ashanti

She was queen mother of Ejisu in the Ashanti Empire – now part of modern-day Ghana, appointed by her brother Nana Akwasi Afrane Opese, the Edwesuhene, or ruler, of Edwesu. In 1900 she led the Ashanti war known as the War of the Golden Stool, also known as the Yaa Asantewaa war, against British colonialism...

Queen Moremi
The Oloori Moremi who lived in the 12th century, hailed from Offa, married to the then king of Ile Ife, a kingdom that is said to have been at war with an adjoining tribe who were known to them as the Forest people (Ìgbò in the Yoruba language, though the said tribe is believed by scholars to have had no relation to the contemporary Ìgbòs of modern Nigeria).

Samori Tour'e

Warrior king, empire builder and hero of the resistance against the French colonization of West Africa during the 19th century, Samori Touré was born around 1830 in the Milo River Valley in present-day Guinea
Benjamin Adekunle

Benjamin Adekunle,'' the Black Scorpion'' as he was popularly known,was founder and head of the famous 3rd Marine Commando. Under his command the 3rd Marine commando in the Atlantic theater during the Nigerian civil war liberated the whole of the South from Biafran control.

General Colin Powell

General Colin Powell was the first, and so far the only, African American to serve on the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He was the 65th United States Secretary of State, serving under U.S. President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2005, the first African American to serve in that position

Murtala Rufai Ramat Muhammed

Murtala Rufai Ramat Muhammed (November 8, 1938 – February 13, 1976) was the military ruler (Head of the Federal Military Government) of Nigeria from 1975 until his assassination in 1976.

Amilcar Cabral ''Revolutionary''
Amilcar Cabral was a Bissau-Guinean and Cape Verdean agricultural engineer, intellectual, poet, theoretician, revolutionary, political organizer, nationalist and diplomat.
 He was one of Africa's foremost anti-colonial leaders.

L'ouverture, Toussaint 1742-1803
Known to his contemporaries as “The Black Napoleon,” Toussaint L’Ouverture was a former slave who rose to become the leader of the only successful slave revolt in modern history that created an independent state, the Haitian Revolution.

Call for Applications As Graduate Research Assistant to Director (IAMS)

This is to call for applications from qualified candidates to fill two (2) vacant posts of Graduate Research Assistant in the Office of the Director of the Institute of Advanced Military Studies (IAMS).

The IAMS's mandate is to explore the many intersections and interfaces between the military and the state and society with a view to advancing new theoretical perspectives and codifying conceptual as well as analytical frameworks grounded in the experience of the post colonial African state.
 Applicants must be currently registered post graduate students at KWASU who have completed the first year of scholarly work with exemplary results.
The highly computer savvy successful candidates would be part of a team of rigorous multi-disciplinary researchers in advanced military studies ranging from the nexus of advances in military technology and social-economic transformations in state and society, intelligence in war, political economy of armed conflict, cyber-warfare, economic dimensions of contemporary interstate hostilities, as well as the evolution of the anatomy of armed conflict, among many others.
Interested applicants should forward brief profiles indicating their interest, areas of competence(s) and a resume to to be received on or before 30 January, 2018.
Only applications of shortlisted candidates would be acknowledged. 

Ademola Araoye (Ph.D)
Institute of Advanced Military Studies (IAMS).
16 January, 2018.

Application Form for Doctoral Program in Advanced Military


Applications are invited from qualified men and women for admission into the doctoral program at the Institute of Advanced Military Studies (IAMS) of Kwara State University in the Harmattan Semester of 2018.  
Download Application form here


  (a) All completed application forms are to be forwarded to not later that 5th May, 2018.

(b) Application form fee is N40,000:00 for Nigerian and U$150:00 for Non-Nigerians. Please note that all foreign candidates should pay into this account:

Account Name: KWARA STATE UNIVERSITY, MALETE (Conference Account)

Account No: 1639369077

Account Type: FCMB Foreign Currency Dom

(c) All candidates must apply for their official Master’s degree academic transcript to be sent to the Director, Institute of Advanced Military Studies, Kwara State University, Malete, not later than the stated deadline.


Lateef Lawal

Secretary, School of Postgraduate Studies

Proposed Seminars for 2018

The IAMS plans to hold a series of talks and seminars related to its mandate in 2018. They are conceptualized  as in depth intellectual engagements with subjects and themes of growing salience to security to Nigeria and Africa as a whole. They are also timed to signal to the larger community of experts in the field the emergence of the IAMS/KWASU as the foremost national platform for critical interrogations of the subject of security and military affairs nationally and in Africa. The speakers and led discussants would be drawn from the academia and the cream of credible public interlocutors across Africa.
  • Mid- March 2018:
Prof Pat Utomi
Prof Pat Utomi, Prof of Political Economy and a public intellectual, would be invited to speak on:
The Fourth Industrial Revolution (the digital age) and Africa's Human Security.
The maiden event is timed to coincide with the advertisement for the admission of the first set of students of the Institute.

  • May, 2018

Gen Bemba Keita
  • May, 2018
 Gen Bemba Keita, Chief of Defense Staff, Republic of Mali to engage on:
Conflicts and long-term Stability in the Sahel.
July, 2018
Dr Aziz Pahad, South Africa's World's longest serving  Deputy Foreign Minister to speak on:
Intelligence in the Liberation War.

  • November, 2018
    Dr Comfort Ero

Dr Comfort Ero, Vice President (Africa), International Crisis Group to explore the subject:
The security of Africa

Dr Aziz Pahad

South Africa's longest serving Deputy Foreign Minister, Author of The Insurgent Diplomat.

Ademola Araoye (PhD )
Institute of Advanced Military Studies (IAMS)
24 January, 2018.

Application for Admission to Doctoral Program in Advanced Military Studies



Applications are invited from qualified men and women for admission into the doctoral program at the Institute of Advanced Military Studies (IAMS) of Kwara State University in the Harmattan Semester of 2018. 
The PhD programme at IAMS is to groom students through immersion in the advanced history and multi disciplinary theories of the military and war as a fundamental human challenge with immense transformational consequences for society and state and indeed with global systemic implications. The three year program is thus theory inclined and cutting edge research oriented with emphasis  placed on critical thinking. The research outcomes are expected to generate  outputs with significant import for public policy and professional practice. 

The goal is the development of experts who will provide leadership, directed by informed and critical analysis,  in resolving complex  challenges of peace, conflict and war as well as national development in the 21st century and especially at the cusp of the fourth industrial revolution. With especial focus on post colonial environment, this program will contribute to ensuring the vision of Nigeria as a leader in critical idea modulations for a transformatory twenty-first century for Africa.

Requirements of Candidates

The following will be eligible for admission:

       1. Possession of a strong Master’s degree (or equivalent) in any discipline from a recognized university.

       2.  Applications must be accompanied by a 1000 word essay on any subject of interest. These include the Manhattan project, Technological advances, Politics, Military, War, and World History, Asymmetric War, Peace building and peace keeping, Patterns and politics of International mediation, Ethics and morality in relation to war, the Fourth industrial revolution (the Digital Age), post/neo Coloniality, Racialism and World History....


In addition, all candidates for admission must pass a written and oral examination.

The programme is designed to meet the needs of a small but diverse and qualified student body that will comprise the following:

1.      Senior officers serving in the Nigerian military or any African National Armed Forces, their equivalents in Para-military organizations, such as the Police Force, including officers deployed to United Nations and African Union (AU) missions and operations.

2.      Candidates must not be below the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel.

3.      Civilians engaged at a high policy making level, not below the rank of Deputy Director or equivalent in government and/or inter-governemntal and non governmental organisations, UN, AU, ECOWAS, MRU, UNICEF, UNESCO, Humanitarian Dialogue, International Crisis Group, etc in various capacities .

4.      Men and women interested in academic careers in related discipline.


Students in the IAMS program have a minimum of three years to complete their doctoral degree requirements. It is a full-time residency course spread across six semesters. The first three semesters are for academic coursework and self-study. Core courses are required to be successfully completed with a minimum of a "B" grade. Students would be encouraged to take more elective courses in areas of their research interest or beyond in their years two and or three, but are not required to do so.  The last three semesters are for thesis writing and defense. The course work will terminate with candidacy examination (written and/or oral). It is mandatory for a student to pass the candidacy examination in order to proceed to doctoral candidacy.


The program is  rigorous consistent with KWASU Postgraduate School standards.

KWASU seriously protects the integrity of all intellectual pursuits under its ambit. 


  (a) All completed application forms are to be forwarded to not later that 5th May, 2018.

(b) Application form fee is N40,000:00 for Nigerian and U$150:00 for Non-Nigerians. Please note that all foreign candidates should pay into this account:

Account Name: KWARA STATE UNIVERSITY, MALETE (Conference Account)

Account No: 1639369077

Account Type: FCMB Foreign Currency Dom

(c) All candidates must apply for their official Master’s degree academic transcript to be sent to the Director, Institute of Advanced Military Studies, Kwara State University, Malete, not later than the stated deadline.


Lateef Lawal

Secretary, School of Postgraduate Studies 

How to Apply
click here to download application form
Electronic applications with detailed CV and full profiles of applicants with documentary support, including essay written by respective candidates addressed to the Institute of Advanced Military Studies (IAMS) should be received on or before 5 May, 2018.
 IAMS-Email :